Lake Victoria one of the largest freshwater fisheries in the world. Over 35 million people in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda depend on Lake Victoria for their livelihood. The number of fishermen at Lake Victoria has more than quadrupled in the last 30 years, which has transformed the fishing industry at the lake. Today, the fishery is estimated to directly employ 200,000 people, around 600,000 people and 4 million people. Annually, the Lake Victoria has significant amounts of GDP in Kenya (2%), Uganda (3%), and Tanzania (2.5%). The annual regional contribution of the fishery is estimated to be € 710 million, with more than one export from a single species, the Nile perch.
The ecosystem of Lake Victoria has undergone at least one ecological tipping point in the recent past when the Nile Perch was introduced in the 1960s. The biological and economic successes of the Nile Perch led to a collapse of the original ecosystem dominated by haplochromine cichlids and other native species. A second tipping point is now predicted by some fishery biologists: "They believe that the export-led boom in fishing effort around the lake since the 1990s, combined with poor compliance with fishing regulations, has given rise to unsustainable biomass extraction patterns, both in terms of level and catch methods. These factors are thought to lead to the likely collapse of the Nile perch fishery in the near future,
Given the open-access nature of the Lake Victoria fishery and the presence of competing jurisdictions, changes in fishing behavior requires collective action at local, national, and international levels. This work is being carried out by the Fisheries Organization (LVFO), the Fisheries Organization (LVFO), the Fisheries Organization (local), the Fisheries Institute (national), and the International bodies of the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization (LVFO). and the Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC). The scientific tallying point is about the required collective action. This is not in light of recent research in behavioral economics and social psychology. This research shows that even in minimally complex systems, tipping points need not be perceived in the same way, or even recognized, across different stakeholders. It also shows that the risk of a future tipping point can, but need not serve as a coordination device for collective action by a group of stakeholders.