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Refugee Resettlement Data 1975-2018

The Refugee Resettlement Data 1975-2018 provide individual refugee data (1975-2008) obtained from publicly held records as originally recorded by the Office of Refugee Resettlement in tandem with a second geo-coded version that covers the 1975-2018 period.

When using these data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel, Langlotz, Sarah, Matzat, Johannes, Parsons, Christopher and Mayda, Anna Maria (2020). Immigration, Political Ideologies and the Polarization of American Politics. CEPR Discussion Paper 15587.

Updated June 30, 2021

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The Political Leaders' Affiliation Database (PLAD)

The Political Leader’s Affiliation Data contain information on the birthplaces and ethnicities of the effective leaders of countries around the globe, for the 1989-2018 period.

When using these data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel, Fuchs, Andreas, Kammerlander, Andreas, Kaplan, Lennart, Robert, Charlotte and Unfried, Kerstin, 2021, Light of Their Life: Country Leaders’ Spouses and Regional Favoritism.

Updated January 19, 2021

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Data on Chinese Development Finance

This project-level dataset tracks the known universe of overseas Chinese official finance between 2000-2014, capturing 4,373 records totaling $354.4 billion. The data include both Chinese aid and non-concessional official financing. 3,485 projects worth $273.6 billion in total official financing include geocodes.

When using the project-level data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel, Andreas Fuchs, Bradley C. Parks, Austin Strange, Michael J. Tierney, 2021, Aid, China, and Growth: Evidence from a New Global Development Finance Dataset, American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 13, 2: 135-174.

When using the geocoded data, please cite:
Bluhm, Richard, Axel Dreher, Andreas Fuchs, Bradley Parks, Austin Strange, and Michael Tierney. 2018. Connective Financing: Chinese Infrastructure Projects and the Diffusion of Economic Activity in Developing Countries. ​AidData Working Paper #64. Williamsburg, VA: AidData at William & Mary.

Updated September 11, 2018

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Data on United Nations Security Council membership

This database contains a dummy indicating that a country has been temporary member of the United Nations Security Council in a particular year and country.

When using these data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel; Jan-Egbert Sturm and James Vreeland, 2009, Development Aid and International Politics: Does membership on the UN Security Council influence World Bank decisions? Journal of Development Economics 88: 1-18.

Updated August 4, 2020

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Data on Central Bank Governors

This database contains information on the term in office of central bank governors for almost all countries in the world starting from the year 1970. Most information was received directly from central banks. Some central banks provide data on previous governors on their website, while for many other central banks we got the information by writing emails and letters. Additional sources are Morgan Stanley Dean Witter's Central Bank Directory and the databases introduced by Cukierman et al. (1992) and Sturm and De Haan (2001).

When using these data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel; Jan-Egbert Sturm and Jakob de Haan, 2008, Does High Inflation Cause Central Bankers to Lose Their Job? Evidence Based on A New Data Set, European Journal of Political Economy 24, 4: 778-787.

An older working paper version is available at KOF Working Paper No. 167.

Updated August 6, 2018

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KOF Index of Globalization

This database contains data on the KOF Index of Globalization, measuring the three main dimensions of globalization: 
  • economic
  • social
  • and political.

In addition to three indices measuring these dimensions, the database contains an overall index of globalization and sub-indices referring to 

  • actual economic flows
  • economic restrictions
  • data on information flows
  • data on personal contact
  • and data on cultural proximity.

Data are available on a yearly basis for 207 countries over the 1970 - 2018 period.


When using these data, please cite:

Gygli, Savina, Florian Haelg, Niklas Potrafke and Jan-Egbert Sturm, 2019, The KOF Globalisation Index – Revisited, Review of International Organizations 14, 3: 543-574.

Dreher, Axel, 2006, Does Globalization Affect Growth? Evidence from a new Index of Globalization, Applied Economics 38, 10: 1091-1110.

Updated January 8, 2021

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Index of Corruption

This database contains a cardinal index of corruption for approximately 100 countries, calculated as a latent variable that is directly related to its underlying causes.

When using these data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel; Christos Kotsogiannis and Steve McCorriston, 2007, Corruption Around the World: Evidence from a Structural Model, Journal of Comparative Economics 35, 3: 443-466.

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IMF Programs and World Bank Projects, 1970-2019

This database contains yearly dummies for the existence of IMF programs and World Bank projects in 160 countries, as used and described in Boockmann and Dreher (2003) and Dreher (2006).

When using the IMF data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel, 2006, IMF and Economic Growth: The Effects of Programs, Loans, and Compliance with Conditionality, World Development 34, 5: 769-788.

When using the World Bank data, please cite:
Boockmann, Bernhard and Axel Dreher, 2003, The Contribution of the IMF and the World Bank to Economic Freedom, European Journal of Political Economy 19, 3: 633-649.

Updated January 19, 2021

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Data on Education and Former Profession of Heads of Governments

This database contains information on the profession and education of more than 500 political leaders from 72 countries over the period 1970-2002. It also provides the control variables used in Dreher et al. (2008).

When using these data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel; Michael J. Lamla; Sarah M. Lein; Frank Somogyi, 2008, The impact of political leaders’ profession and education on reforms, Journal of Comparative Economics 37, 1: 169-193.

An older working paper version is available as KOF Working Paper No. 147.

Updated July 20, 2008

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Data on NGO Aid

This database contains information on aid expenditures allocated by 61 NGOs in 2005 (in Euro).

When using these data, please cite:
Koch, Dirk-Jan; Axel Dreher; Rainer Thiele and Peter Nunnenkamp, 2008, Keeping a Low Profile: What Determines the Allocation of Aid by Non-Governmental Organizations? World Development 37, 5: 902-918.

An older working paper version is available as KOF Working Paper No. 191.

Updated August 15, 2007

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Data on United Nations General Assembly Voting

This database contains information on a country’s voting behavior with respect to the G7 countries over the 1970-2008 period.

When using these data, please cite:
Dreher, Axel and Jan-Egbert Sturm, 2012, Do IMF and World Bank Influence Voting in the UN General Assembly? Public Choice 151, 1: 363-397.

An older working paper version is available at KOF Working Paper 137.

Updated March 10, 2010

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3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index

The Anti-trafficking Policy Index evaluates governmental anti-trafficking efforts in the three main policy dimensions, based on the requirements prescribed by the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (2000). The three main policy dimensions are:

  • Prosecution of traffickers
  • Prevention of the crime of human trafficking
  • Protection of trafficking victims

The policy level is evaluated with a 5-point scale, where a score of 5 indicates the best policy practice with a score of 1 being the worst, for each of the three policy areas.

Additionally, the sub-indices of prosecution, protection and prevention are aggregated to an overall index ("3P" Index) as the unweighted sum, so that the overall index ranges from 3 (worst) to 15 (best). The project is sponsored by the European Commission's Directorate-General Justice, Freedom and Security (Prevention of and Fight Against Crime Programme, Action Grant).

Annual data are available for up to 184 countries over the 2000-2012 period. See www.human-trafficking-research.org for further details.

When using these data, please cite:
Cho, Seo-Young, Axel Dreher and Eric Neumayer, forthcoming, The Determinants of Anti-trafficking Policies - Evidence from a New Index, Scandinavian Journal of Economics 116, 2: 429-454.

An older working paper version is available as Cege Discussion Paper Series No. 119.

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Latest Revision: 2021-06-29
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