|Geoengineering:||Geoengineering or Climate Engineering both refers to the deliberate large-scale alteration of the climate system by technological means. Other than climate engineering the term geonegineering focuses directly on the planetary dimension deriving from the Greek word “geo” (γη) which means “earth”. In the international debate geoengineering proved to be the prevalent term.|
|Anthropogenic:||The Fourth Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states, that most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic i.e human-induced greenhouse gas concentrations. The term “anthropogenic” is often used to refer to environmental changes resulting from human activity.|
The ratio of reflected-to-incident shortwave flux density at the top of the atmosphere.Planetary albedos are a function of time and space, depending in particular on the nature of cloud and ground cover. For the earth as a whole, the long term average planetary albedo is about 0.31.
|Overconfidence:||raised in social-psychology, decision analysis and economics overconfidence refers to a incentives structure in which|
|Transboundary and trans-generational effects:||Some technologies, such as stratospheric sulphur injection may well alleviate effects of climate change in some regions but may also induce new disparities in terms of uninteded consequences and detrimental impacts. In addition, technologies will limit policy options within and between future generations as they are likely to cause irreversible consequences.|
|Development, testing and implementation phase:||Whereas development or modeling studies have no environmental impacts other than resource allocation, testing geoengineering technologies maybe subdivided in engineering and climatic studies. The former entail small scale tests without substantial climatic impact, e.g. experiments testing the lifetimes of aerosols. The latter, however, aim to determine the climatic response, thereby creating widespread potentially hazardous conditions for humans and the biosphere (cf. Morrow et al. 2009: 2)|
|UNFCCC:||The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) opened for signature in 1992 and entered into force in 1994. Under the UNFCCC, Parties are required to: (1) gather and share information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, national policies, and best practices, (2) launch national strategies for addressing GHG emissions and adapting to expected impacts, and (3) cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change. The UNFCCC does not set binding targets for GHG emissions. http://unfccc.int/2860.php|
|Kyoto Protocol||The Kyoto Protocol was opened for signature in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. It is designed to implement the UNFCCC by committing its industrialized state Parties (“Annex 1” countries) to legally binding reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf
|UNCLOS:||United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Article 192 of the UNCLOS imposes a general obligation on states to protect and preserve the marine environment. In addition, the UNCLOS creates specific obligations to preserve particular marine animals.
|ENMOD:||The “Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Technique” commits the signatories to refrain from any military or other hostile use of weather-modification which could result in widespread, long-lasting, or severe effects.
|London Convention:||The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (“London Convention”) was opened for signature in December 1972 and entered into force in August 1975. Contracting Parties pledge to take all possible steps to prevent the pollution of the sea by substances that are liable to create hazards to human health, harm living resources and marine life, or interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea. http://www.imo.org/home.asp?topic_id=1488|
|Oxford principles on GE:|