History of Heidelberg University
A Short Survey
In the centuries since its founding, Heidelberg University has experienced many ups and downs in connection with its scientific reputation, its intellectual charisma, and its attractiveness to professors and students. In the 16th century Heidelberg evolved into a centre of humanism. Martin Luther’s public defense of his Ninety-Five Theses in April 1518 had a lasting effect. In the years following, the university gained a special reputation as Calvinist stronghold. The Heidelberg Catechism was written in 1563 and to this day remains a fundamental confessional for the reformed church. After a difficult span of years marked by revolutions and financial mismanagement, Baden’s first grand duke Karl Friedrich reorganised the university. The university added his name to that of its founder, thereafter calling itself Ruprecht-Karls-Universität.
During the 19th century, Heidelberg was widely celebrated for its high level of research, its liberality and commitment to democratic ideals and its openness to new ideas. This combination attracted a large number of foreign students. This second flowering was marked by extraordinary research efforts across all faculties and was punctuated by such names as Robert Bunsen, Hermann Helmholtz, Gustav Kirchhoff and Max Weber.
As with its first flowering, Heidelberg saw its second great prospering end with the outbreak of war in 1914. The two world wars in the first half of the 20th century and the horrendous circumstances associated with them plunged Heidelberg University into a nadir from which it only slowly recovered.
In the mid-1960s, Heidelberg, like so many other universities, degenerated into an overcrowded degree factory. Between 1950 and 1960, Heidelberg’s student population doubled; it tripled again between 1961 and 2010, leading to extreme overcrowding and overloading. Despite this, and despite concurrent financial problems, Heidelberg recovered its footing and its extraordinary reputation. It has even improved on that reputation, once again becoming extremely attractive to international academics and students alike. Heidelberg University was also successful on both rounds of Germany’s Excellence Initiative – in 2006/07 and in 2012 – and this, combined with its high position in internationally regarded university rankings is a further indication of the university’s leading role and excellent reputation in international academia.